While reading tons of literature about software requirements, I found these two interesting books:
These two authors really stand out from the crowd because, in my humble opinion, they are making a really good attempt to turn development of requirements into a very systematic process - more like engineering than art or black magic. In particular, Michael Jackson's definition of what requirements really are - I think it is the cleanest and most precise that I've ever seen.
I wouldn't do a good service to these authors trying to describe their aproach in a short posting here. So I am not going to do that. But I will try to explain, why their approach seems to be extremely relevant to your question: it allows you to boil down most (not all, but most!) of you requirements development work to processing a bunch of check-lists* telling you what requirements you have to define to cover all important aspects of the entire customer's problem. In other words, this approach is supposed to minimize the risk of missing important requirements (including those that often remain implicit).
I know it may sound like magic, but it isn't. It still takes a substantial mental effort to come to those "magic" check-lists: you have to articulate the customer's problem first, then analyze it thoroughly, and finally dissect it into so-called "problem frames" (which come with those magic check-lists only when they closely match a few typical problem frames defined by authors). Like I said, this approach does not promise to make everything simple. But it definitely promises to make requirements development process as systematic as possible.
If requirements development in your current project is already quite far from the very beginning, it may not be feasible to try to apply the Problem Frames Approach at this point (although it greatly depends on how your current requirements are organized). Still, I highly recommend to read those two books - they contain a lot of wisdom that you may still be able to apply to the current project.
My last important notes about these books:
As far as I understand, Mr. Jackson is the original author of the idea of "problem frames". His book is quite academic and theoretical, but it is very, very readable and even entertaining.
Mr. Kovitz' book tries to demonstrate how Mr. Jackson ideas can be applied in real practice. It also contains tons of useful information on writing and organizing the actual requirements and requirements documents.
You can probably start from the Kovitz' book (and refer to Mr. Jackson's book only if you really need to dig deeper on the theoretical side). But I am sure that, at the end of the day, you should read both books, and you won't regret that. :-)